The CHISQ.TEST function returns the test for independence. CHISQ.TEST returns the value from the chi-squared (χ2) distribution for the statistic and the appropriate degrees of freedom. You can use χ2 tests to determine whether hypothesized results are verified by an experiment.

**Syntax**:= CHISQ.TEST(actual_range,expected_range)

The CHISQ.TEST function syntax has the following arguments:

**Actual_range**(required argument) – This is the range of data containing observations that are to be tested against expected values. It is an array of*observed*frequencies.**Expected_range**(required argument) – This is the range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total. It is an array of*expected*frequencies.

**Example**: Let’s look at some Excel CHISQ.TEST function examples and explore how to use the CHISQ.TEST function as a worksheet function in Microsoft Excel:

The formula for calculating the chi-square test for the independence of the datasets above is:

**Syntax**: =CHISQ.TEST(B3:C5,E3:F5)

**Result**: 0.0001180

Generally, a probability of 0.05 or less is considered to be significant. Therefore, the returned value above, 0.0000217, indicates a significant difference between the observed and the expected frequencies, which is unlikely to be due to sampling error.

**Note**:

- #DIV/0! error – Occurs when any of the values provided in expected_range is zero.
- #N/A error – Occurs when either:
- The data arrays provided are of different dimensions; or
- The data arrays provided contain only one value. That is, the length and width are equal to 1.

- #NUM! error – Occurs when any of the values in the expected range is negative.
- The CHISQ.TEST function was introduced in Excel 2010 and hence is unavailable in earlier versions. It is an updated version of the CHITEST function.
- The χ2 test first calculates a χ2 statistic using the formula:

where:

Aij = actual frequency in the i-th row, j-th column

Eij = expected frequency in the i-th row, j-th column

r = number or rows

c = number of columns